Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by it, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been undergoing a genetic diversification leading to the emergence of new variants. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the genetic signatures underlying the circulating variants is still missing. Here, we provide a comprehensive insight into mutational profiles characterizing each SARS-CoV-2 variant, focusing on spike mutations known to modulate viral infectivity and/or antigenicity. We focused on variants and on specific relevant mutations reported by GISAID, Nextstrain, Outbreak.info, Pango, and Stanford database websites that were associated with any clinical/diagnostic impact, according to published manuscripts. Furthermore, 1,223,338 full-length high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences were retrieved from GISAID and used to accurately define the specific mutational patterns in each variant. Finally, mutations were mapped on the three-dimensional structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to assess their localization in the different spike domains. Overall, this review sheds light and assists in defining the genetic signatures characterizing the currently circulating variants and their clinical relevance.
SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Their Relevant Mutational Profiles: Update Summer 2021
Optimization of non-coding regions for a non-modified mRNA COVID-19 vaccine