Both innate immunity and acquired immunity are involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The induction of Abs that neutralize the virus has been described, and certain Abs against endemic coronaviruses may cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Detailed mechanisms to protect against the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 remain unresolved. We previously reported that IgG Fc-binding protein (Fcγbp), a unique, large molecular weight, and mucin-like secretory Fc receptor protein, secreted from goblet cells of human small and large intestine, mediates the transportation of serum IgG onto the mucosal surface. In this review, we show that mucous bronchial gland cells and some goblet cells are immunoreactive for Fcγbp. Fcγbp traps the cross-reactive (both neutralizing and non-neutralizing) IgG bound to the virus and can consequently eliminate the virus from the mucosal surface to decrease viral loads. Fcγbp can also suppress immune overreaction by interfering with Fc-binding by macrophages and competing with complement fixation. Fcγbp secreted from mucin-producing cells of the airway functions as an important anti-infection mucosal defense. The Fcγbp-mediated mechanism can be a key factor in explaining why SARS-CoV-2 is less infective/lethal in children, and may also be involved in the unique Ab response, recurrent infection, and effects of serum therapy and vaccination.
Neglected roles of IgG Fc-binding protein secreted from airway mucin-producing cells in protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent plasma do not facilitate antibody-dependent enhance of viral infection