Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst pandemic disease of the current millennium. To address this crisis, therapeutic nanoparticles, including inorganic nanoparticles, lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, virus-like nanoparticles, and cell membrane-coated nanoparticles, have all offered compelling antiviral strategies. This article reviews these strategies in three categories: (1) nanoparticle-enabled detection of SARS-CoV-2, (2) nanoparticle-based treatment for COVID-19, and (3) nanoparticle vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. We discuss how nanoparticles are tailor-made to biointerface with the host and the virus in each category. For each nanoparticle design, we highlight its structure–function relationship that enables effective antiviral activity. Overall, nanoparticles bring numerous new opportunities to improve our response to the current COVID-19 pandemic and enhance our preparedness for future viral outbreaks.
Nanoparticle approaches against SARS-CoV-2 infection
Cryptic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the first COVID-19 wave