The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2) epidemic is professed as world disaster producing a worrying increasing mortality, particularly amongst vulnerable humans worldwide. Whether COVID-19 has a strong ability for acceptable genetic flexibility that amended for breaking immune responses quickly, it is critical to understand the adaptation mechanism between viruses and hosts that allows individuals to follow viral development. This can contribute to finding the appropriate treatment to combat the epidemic. However, the present information about viral adaptation mechanisms in hosts is still insufficient, and future investigations may reveal the unknown. Mutations and genetic variations are naturally occurring; however, the current knowledge about their mechanism and pathways still has many secrets. The present review also provides insights into the immune system, immunological memory, and the development of the COVID-19 vaccine. Other fighting methods against COVID-19 are also highlighted. The potential of antibodies, natural metabolites, and current suggest vaccines were applied to the face of this new threat.
Immunology and controlling of coronaviruses; the current enemy for humanity: A review
Viral polymerase binding and broad-spectrum antiviral activity of molnupiravir against human seasonal coronaviruses