Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a recent and current infectious pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Covid-19 may lead to the development of acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and extrapulmonary manifestations in severe cases. Down-regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) by the SARS-CoV-2 increases the production of angiotensin II (AngII), which increases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and placental growth factor (PlGF). PlGF is a critical molecule involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. PlGF is stimulated by AngII in different inflammatory diseases through a variety of signaling pathways. PlGF and AngII are interacted in SARS-CoV-2 infection resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of Covid-19 complications. Both AngII and PlGF are interacted and are involved in the progression of inflammatory disorders; therefore, we aimed in this review to highlight the potential role of the PlGF/AngII axis in Covid-19.

Matéria original


Factors influencing neutralizing antibody titers elicited by coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines


A critical overview of current progress for COVID-19: development of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and therapeutic antibodies