Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, responsible for millions of deaths globally. Even with effective vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 will likely maintain a hold in the human population through gaps in efficacy, percent vaccinated, and arising new strains. Therefore, understanding how SARS-CoV-2 causes widespread tissue damage and the development of targeted pharmacological treatments will be critical in fighting this virus and preparing for future outbreaks. Herein, we summarize the progress made thus far by using in vitro or in vivo models to investigate individual SARS-CoV-2 proteins and their pathogenic mechanisms. We have grouped the SARS-CoV-2 proteins into three categories: host entry, self-acting, and host interacting. This review focuses on the self-acting and host-interacting SARS-CoV-2 proteins and summarizes current knowledge on how these proteins promote virus replication and disrupt host systems, as well as drugs that target the virus and virus interacting host proteins. Encouragingly, many of these drugs are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. Future coronavirus outbreaks will most likely be caused by new virus strains that evade vaccine protection through mutations in entry proteins. Therefore, study of individual self-acting and host-interacting SARS-CoV-2 proteins for targeted therapeutic interventions is not only essential for fighting COVID-19 but also valuable against future coronavirus outbreaks.

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Workshop debate importância da rastreabilidade no combate à pirataria